MedLibs Round 2.6

11 07 2010

Welcome to this months edition of MedLib’s Round, a blog carnival of “excellent blog posts in the field of medical information”.

This round is a little belated, because of late submissions and my absence earlier this week.
But lets wait no longer …..!

Peer Review, Impact Factors & Conflict of Interest

Walter Jessen at Highlight HEALTH writes about the NIH Peer Review process. Included is an interesting video, that provides an inside look at how scientists from across the US review NIH grant applications for scientific and technical merit. These scientists do seem take their job seriously.

But what about peer review of scientific papers? Richard Smith, doctor, former editor of the BMJ and a proponent of open access publishing, wrote a controversial post at the BMJ Groups Blog called scrap peer review and beware of “top journals. Indeed  the “top journals” publish the sexy stuff, whereas evidence comprises both the glamorous and the unglamorous. But is prepublication peer review really that bad and should we only filter afterwards?

In a thoughtful post at his Nature blog Confessions of a (former) Lab Rat another Richard (Grant) argues that although peer review suffers terribly from several shortcomings it is still required. Richard Grant also clears up one misconception:

Peer review, done properly, might guarantee that work is done correctly and to the best of our ability and best intentions, but it will not tell you if a particular finding is right–that’s the job of other experimenters everywhere; to repeat the experiments and to build on them.

At Scholarly Kitchen (about what is hot and cooking in scholarly publishing) they don’t think peer review is a clear concept, since the list of ingredients differ per journal and article. Read their critical analysis and suggestions for improvement of the standard recipe here.

The science blogosphere was buzzing in outrage about the adding a corporate nutrition blog sponsored by PepsiCo to ScienceBlog (i.e see this post at the Guardian Science Blog). ScienceBlogs is the platform of eminent science bloggers, like OracPharyngula and Molecule of the Day. After some bloggers left ScienceBlog and others threatened to do so, the Pepsico Blog was retracted.

An interesting view is presented by David Crotty at Scholarly Kitchen. He states that it is “hypocritical for ScienceBlog’s bloggers to have objected so strenuously: ScienceBlogs has never been a temple of purity, free of bias or agenda.” Furthermore the bloggers enjoy more traffic and a fee for being a scienceblogger, and promote their “own business” too. David finds it particularly ironic that these complaints come from the science blogosphere, which has regularly been a bastion of support for the post-publication review philosophy. Read more here.

Indeed according to a note of Scienceblog at the disappeared blog their intention was “to engage industry in pursuit of science-driven social change”, although it was clearly not the right way.

The partiality of business, including pharma, makes it’s presence in and use of Social Media somewhat tricky. Still it is important for pharma to get involved in web2.0. Interested in a discussion on this topic? Than follow the tags #HCSM (HealthCare Social Media) and #HCSMEU (Europe) on Twitter.
Andrew Spong, has launched an open wiki, where you can read all about #HCSMEU.

The value of journal impact factors is also debatable. In the third part of the series “Show me the evidence” Kathleen Crea at EBM and Clinical Support Librarians @ UCHC starts with an excerpt of an article with the intriguing title “The Top-Ten in Journal Impact Factor Manipulation”:

The assumption that Impact Factor (IF) is a number absolutely proportional to science quality has led to misuses beyond the index’s original scope, even in the opinion of its devisor.”

The post itself (Teaching & Learning in Medicine, Research Methodology, Biostatistics: Show Me the Evidence (Part 3)b) is not so much about evidence, but offers a wealth of information about  journal impact factors, comparisons of sites for citation analysis, and some educational materials for teaching others about citation analysis. Not only are Journal Citation Reports and SCOPUS discussed, but also the Eigenfactor, h-index and JANE.

Perhaps we need another system of publishing and peer review? Will the future be to publish triplets and peer review these via Twitter by as many reviewers as possible? Read about this proposal of Barend Mons (of the same group that created JANE) at this blog. Here you can also find a critical review of an article comparing Google Scholar and PubMed for retrieving evidence.

Social Media, Blogs & Web 2.0 tools

There are several tools to manage the scientific articles, like CiteULike and Mendeley. At his blog Gobbledygook Martin Fenner discusses the pros and cons of a new web-based tool specifically for discussing papers in Journal Clubs: JournalFire

At the The Health Informaticists they found an interesting new feature of Skype:  screen sharing. Here you can read all about it.

Andrew Sprong explains at his blog STweM how to create a PDF archive of hashtagged tweets using whatthehashtag?! and Google DocsScribd or Slideshare. A tweet archive is very useful in case of  live tweet or stream sessions at conferences. (each tweet is then labeled with a # or hashtag, but tweets are lost after a few days if not archived)

L1010201At Cool Toy of the DayPatricia Anderson posts a lot about healthcare tools. She submitted Cool Toys Pic of the day – Eyewriter“, a tool for allowing persons with ALS and paralysis to draw artwork with their eyes. But you find a lot more readworthy posts at this blog and her main blog Emerging Technologies Librarian.

Heidi Allen at Heidi Allen Digital Strategy started a discussion on the meaning of social-medicine for Physicians. The link to the original submission doesn’t work right now, but if you follow this link you see several posts on social-medicine, including “Physicians in Social Media”, where 3 well-known physicians give their view on the meaning of social-medicine.

Dr Shock at Dr Shock MD PhD, wonders whether “the information on postpartum depression in popular lay magazines correspond to scientific knowledge?” Would it surprise you that this is not the case for many articles on this topic?

The post of Guus van den Brekel at DigiCMB with the inspiring title Discovering new seas of knowledge partly goes about the seas of knowledge gained at the EAHIL2010 (European Association for Health Information and Libraries) meeting, with an overview of many sessions, and materials when possible. And I should stress when possible, because the other  part of the post is about the difficulty of obtaining access to this sea of knowledge. Guus wonders:

In this age of Open Access, web 2.0 and the expectancy of the “users” -being us librarians (…) one would assume that much (if not all) is freely available via Conferences websites and/or social media. Why then do I find it hard to find the extra info about those events, including papers and slides and possibly even webcasts? Are we still not into the share-mode and overprotective to one’s own achievements(….)

Guus makes a good point,especially in this era, when not all of us are able to go and visit far away places. Luckily we have Guus who did a good job of compiling as much material as possible.

Wondering about the evidence for the usefulness of web 2.0, then have a look at this excellent wiki by Dean Giustini: http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/index.php/Evidence-based_web_2.0.
The Health Librarianship Wiki Canada (the mother wiki) has a great new design and is a very rich source of information for medical librarians.

Another good source for recent peer reviewed papers about using social media in medicine and healthcare is a new series by Bertalan Mesko at Science Roll. First it was called Evidence Based Social Media News and now Social media journal club.

EHR and the clinical librarian.

Nikki Dettmar presents two posts on Electronic Health Records at Eagledawg.net, inspired by a recent Medical Library Association meeting that included a lot about electronic health records (EHRs). In the first part “Electronic Health Records: Not All About the Machine” she mentions the launch of an OpenNotes study that “evaluates the impact on both patients and physicians of sharing, through online medical record portals, the comments and observations made by physicians after each patient encounter.” The second post is entitled “a snapshot of ephemeral chaos“. And yes the title says it all.

Bertalan Mesko at Science Roll describes a try out of a Cardiology Resident and Research Fellow in Google Wave to see whether that platform is suitable for creating a database of the electronic records of a virtual patient. The database looks fine at first glance, but is it safe?

Alisha764’s Blog celebrated its 1 year anniversary in February. Alisha Miles aim for the next year is to not only post more but to focus on hospital libraries including her experience as a hospital librarian. Excellent idea, Alisha! I liked the post Rounding: A solo medical librarian’s perspective with several practical tips if you join the round as a librarian. I hope you can find time to write more like this, Alisha!

Our next host is Walter Jessen at Highlight HEALTH. You can already start submitting the link to a (relevant) post you have written here.

See the MedLibs Archive for more information.

Photo Credits:

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#CECEM Bridging the Gap between Evidence Based Practice and Practice Based Evidence

15 06 2009

cochrane-symbol A very interesting presentation at the CECEM was given by the organizer of this continental Cochrane meeting, Rob de Bie. De Bie is Professor of Physiotherapy Research and director of Education of the Faculty of Health within the dept. of Epidemiology of the Maastricht University. He is both a certified physiotherapist and an epidemiologist. Luckily he kept the epidemiologic theory to a minimum. In fact he is a very engaging speaker who keeps your attention to the end.

Guidelines

While guidelines were already present in the Middle Ages in the form of formalized treatment of daily practice, more recently clinical guidelines have emerged. These are systematically developed statements which assists clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatement for specific conditions.

Currently, there are 3 kinds of guidelines, each with its own shortcomings.

  • Consensus based. Consensus may be largely influenced by group dynamics
    Consensus = non-sensus and Consensus guidelines are guidelies.
  • Expert based. Might be even worse than consensus. It can have all kind of biases, like expert and opinion bias or external financing.
  • Evidence based. Guideline recommendations are based on best available evidence, deals with specific interventions for specific populations and are based on a systematic approach.

The quality of Evidence Based Guidelines depends on whether the evidence is good enough, transparent, credible, available, applied and not ‘muddled’ by health care insurers.
It is good to realize that some trials are never done, for instance because of ethical considerations. It is also true that only part of what you read (in the conclusions) has actually be done and some trials are republished several times, each time with a better outcome…

Systematic reviews and qualitatively good trials that don’t give answers.

Next Rob showed us the results of a study ( Jadad and McQuay in J. Clin. Epidemiol. ,1996) with efficacy as stated in the review plotted on the X-axis and the Quality score on the Y-axis. Surprisingly meta-analysis of high quality were less likely to produce positive results. Similar results were also obtained by Suttorp et al in 2006. (see Figure below)

12066264  rob de bie CECEM

Photo made by Chris Mavergames

There may be several reasons why good trials not always give good answers. Well known reasons are  the lack of randomization or blinding. However Rob focused on a less obvious reason. Despite its high level of evidence, a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) may not always be suitable to provide good answers applicable to all patients, because RCT’s often fail to reflect the true clinical practice. Often, the inclusion of patients in RCT’s is selective: middle-aged men with exclusion of co-morbidity. Whereas co-morbidity occurs in > 20% of the people of 60 years and older and in >40% of the people of 80 years and older (André Knottnerus in his speech).

Usefulness of a Nested Trial Cohort Study coupled to an EHR to study interventions.

Next, Rob showed that a nested Trial cohort study can be useful to study the effectiveness of  interventions. He used this in conjunction with an EHR (electronic health record), which could be accessed by practitioner and patient.

One of the diseases studied in this way, was Intermittent Claudication. Most commonly Intermittent Claudication is a manifestation of  peripheral arterial disease in the legs, causing pain and cramps in the legs while walking (hence the name). The mortality is high: the 5 year mortality rates are in between those of colorectal cancer and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. This is related to the underlying atherosclerosis.

There are several risk factors, some of which cannot be modified, like hereditary factors, age and gender. Other factors, like smoking, diet, physical inactivity and obesity can be tackled. These factors are interrelated.

Rob showed that, whereas there may be an overall null effect of exercise in the whole population, the effect may differ per subgroup.

15-6-2009 3-06-19 CI 1

  • Patients with mild disease and no co-morbidity may directly benefit from exercise-therapy (blue area).
  • Exercise has no effect on smokers, probably because smoking is the main causative factor.
  • People with unstable diabetes first show an improvement, which stabilized after a few weeks due to hypo- or hyperglycaemia induced by the exercise,
  • A similar effect is seen in COPD patients, the exercise becoming less effective because the patients become short of breath.

It is important to first regulate diabetes or COPD before continuing the exercise therapy. By individually optimizing the intervention(s) a far greater overall effect is achieved: 191% improval in the maximal (pain-free) walking distance compared to for instance <35% according to a Cochrane Systematic Review (2007).

Another striking effect: exercise therapy affects some of the prognostic factors: whereas there is no effect on BMI (this stays an important risk factor), age and diabetes become less important risk factors.

15-6-2009 3-35-10 shift in prognostic factors

Because guidelines are quickly outdated, the findings are directly implemented in the existing guidelines.

Another astonishing fact: the physiotherapists pay for the system, not the patient nor the government.

More information can be found on https://www.cebp.nl/. Although the presentation is not (yet?) available on the net, I found a comparable presentation here.

** (2009-06-15) Good news: the program and all presentations can now be viewed at: https://www.cebp.nl/?NODE=239